Research Article

A comparative study of pupils’ performance during online and face-to-face learning in under resourced secondary schools of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Desmond Mwembe 1 * , Thelma Chari 1
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1 National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, ZIMBABWE* Corresponding Author
International Journal of Professional Development, Learners and Learning, 5(1), 2023, ep2307,
Published: 03 March 2023
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Onset of COVID-19 early 2020 disrupted learning in public and private schools of Zimbabwe. The traditional face-to-face lesson delivery method was no longer feasible due to lockdowns. The purpose of this research was to establish whether or not performance in under-resourced schools was affected. The research compares performance of learners prior to and during COVID-19 period in arts, commercial and science subjects. A simple random sampling method was used to collect primary data from advanced level students, teachers and other stakeholders using questionnaires. Secondary data on performance of learners was collected randomly from reports from public schools within Bulawayo. Evaluation of structural associations between learning areas, teaching methods and subject areas were analysed using loglinear models. Findings of the research show that arts and commercial subjects could be taught online without statistically significant changes in the odds of passing these learning areas. While science subjects had statistically significant changes in the odds of passing these learning areas when a shift from face-to face to online learning was made. Girl child was the most affected. It is recommended that for science subjects, mixture of online learning and face-to-face lessons be considered.


Mwembe, D., & Chari, T. (2023). A comparative study of pupils’ performance during online and face-to-face learning in under resourced secondary schools of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. International Journal of Professional Development, Learners and Learning, 5(1), ep2307.


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