Research Article

Needs Assessment for Facilitators in Teaching of STEM Subjects in Under-Resourced Rural Schools: Case of Lupane and Hwange Districts in Zimbabwe

Desmond Mwembe 1 * , Isabel Linda Zulu 2 , Precious Mdlongwa 1
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1 Department of Statistics and Operations Research, National University of Science and Technology, Ascot Bulawayo, ZIMBABWE2 Department of Mathematics, University of Eswatini, Kwaluseni, ESWATINI* Corresponding Author
International Journal of Professional Development, Learners and Learning, 4(1), 2022, ep2202,
Published: 02 February 2022
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The aim of the study was to determine the various needs facilitators and schools lack for effective teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects, in both the primary and secondary under-resourced rural schools. This survey was conducted from February 2019 to March 2019, in Lupane and Hwange Districts. A multi-stage sampling method was used for collecting data. Focus group discussions were also used in collecting data and were conducted prior to issuance of questionnaires for completion by the participants. In analyzing data, odds ratio (OR) were calculated to compare the relative odds between outcomes and variables of interest. The survey found out that female facilitators were lagging behind in the uptake and training of teaching of STEM subjects, which could be attributed to family responsibilities. It was established that some needs such as lesson delivery skills, research skills and capacitation were highly needed in primary schools as compared to secondary schools. While other needs identified were equally needed in both primary and secondary schools. These include but are not limited to conducting team teaching with other facilitators, linking topics and lessons across classes and lessons, application skills and STEM activities. It was highly recommended that primary and secondary school facilitators be funded to attend capacitation platforms in teaching of STEM subjects for effective teaching of STEM in rural schools and using locally available resources, as limited resources is the order of the day in rural schools. Schools must be equipped with tools and structures such as laboratories. If schools cannot build laboratories, it was recommended that mobile laboratories be established to improve teaching of STEM subjects in under-resourced rural schools. One mobile laboratory can service many schools in the district and improve the pass rate of STEM subjects.


Mwembe, D., Zulu, I. L., & Mdlongwa, P. (2022). Needs Assessment for Facilitators in Teaching of STEM Subjects in Under-Resourced Rural Schools: Case of Lupane and Hwange Districts in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Professional Development, Learners and Learning, 4(1), ep2202.


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